By Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi, Kaushal Tewari, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Sayuri Ito, Toshikazu Nishiwaki, Yoshifumi Nagumo, Satomi Ishii, Takashi Sato
Within the first half, the authors introduce the development of researches on nitrogen metabolism of soybean nodules and roots. They examine the destiny of nitrogen mounted in soybean nodules through tracer scan with 15N2 fuel. the implications point out that significant a part of mounted N in bacteroids (a symbiotic nation of rhizobia) is excreted speedily to cytosol of contaminated cells within the kind of ammonia, then the ammonia is assimilated into amino acids through GS/GOGAT pathway. Then the mounted nitrogen is assimilated into ureides, allantoin and allantoic acid, after which transported to the shoots through xylem. A small section of fastened N was once assimilated within the bacteroids at once into glutamate and alanine. nonetheless, nitrate absorbed from the roots are regularly assimilated into asparagine. The features of nitrate absorption and metabolism have been studied. it's popular that nitrate is a effective inhibitor to nodulation and nitrogen fixation, even supposing the inhibitory mechanism isn't really totally understood. The authors lately discovered that nitrate depresses person nodule progress and nitrogen fixation job swiftly and reversibly whilst nodules have been in direct touch with nitrate. The oblique results of nitrate on nodule development and nitrogen fixation job have been diverse between therapy focus and interval of offer. the continual provide of low degrees of nitrate from the reduce a part of roots promoted the nodulation and nitrogen fixation of the higher a part of the roots. Hypernodulation mutant strains of soybean have been remoted that have profuse nodulation in comparison with mom and dad. additionally they express partial-nitrate tolerant to nodulation. The features of hypernodulation mutant strains have been studied on the subject of nitrate inhibition. the consequences recommend that reduce nitrate absorption and assimilation job in hypernodulation mutants can be one cause to milder inhibition by means of nitrate on hypernodulation mutant strains.
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Extra info for Nitrogen Fixation and Metabolism in Soybean Plants
Carbohydrate deprivation in nodules (Streeter 1988, Vessy and Waterer 1992), feedback inhibition by a product of nitrate metabolism such as glutamine (Neo and Layzell 197), asparagine (Bacanambo and Harper 1996, 1997), and decreased O2 diffusion into nodules which restricts the respiration of bacteroids (Schuller et al. 1988, Vessey et al. 1988, Gordon et al. 2002). Kanayama and Yamamoto proposed that NO formed from NO3- binds to Lb to make nitrosylleghemoglobin and defect the O2 binding activity (Kanayama 42 Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi et al.
After several hours of incubation at 45 oC, the NO3- absorption recovered by adaptation to high temperature. Characteristics of Nitrate Absorption and Transport in Soybean Plants 31 Figure 26. Circulation system for detecting NO3- concentration in culture solution. From Ohyama et al. 1989b. 2 0 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 NO3- concentration ( μmole L-1 ) Figure 27. NO3- absorption rate vs NO3- concentration in culture solution The diurnal rhythm in NO3- absorption by intact soybean plants was investigated by sampling the culture solution every 15 min and analyzed by ion chromatography (Ohyama et al.
During 24 hr of 15N feedings, approximately 70% of N originated from 15NO3- and 15NH4+ was partitioned in the leaves plus stems. However, the absorption of 15NO2- was about half as much as those of 15NO3- and 15NH4+. In addition, the N originating from 15NO2- was accumulated in the roots, and not readily transported to the shoots (only about 20% partitioning in leaves plus stems after 24hr). 8 mM NH4NO3 (Atwell, 1992). After the addition of 15NO3- in the solution, the asparagine concentration increased markedly, indicating that asparagine is a major assimilatory compounds of NO3- in soybean roots.
Nitrogen Fixation and Metabolism in Soybean Plants by Takuji Ohyama, Norikuni Ohtake, Kuni Sueyoshi, Kaushal Tewari, Yoshihiko Takahashi, Sayuri Ito, Toshikazu Nishiwaki, Yoshifumi Nagumo, Satomi Ishii, Takashi Sato