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Additional resources for Liver: A Complete Book On Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Diseases
Primary biliary cirrhosis Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) is an autoimmune liver disease causing slowly progressive bile duct injury and rarefaction. Biliary cells exhibit both necrosis and apoptosis, and a signiﬁcant number of apoptotic bile duct cells were found in tissue sections of PBC patients. In humans, administration of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) slows disease progression in PBC, and improves liver function in both PBC and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC). UDCA may act by slightly reducing the ileal absorption of toxic, hydrophobic bile acids, by causing Ca2ϩ-stimulated insertion of transport proteins in the canalicular membrane, and by exerting the direct cytoprotective effects.
IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), soluble TNF-␣ receptor (sTNF-␣R), IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, and transforming growth factor-␤ (TGF-␤) are considered to be anti-inﬂammatory or immunosuppressive cytokines since they play a role in limiting the expansion of speciﬁc lymphocytes and returning activated macrophages and other inﬂammatory cells to their normal resting state. In addition, interferon-␥ (IFN-␥) IL-12, and IL-18 have a critical role in immunomodulation in that their primary physiological role involves modulating the actions of various proinﬂammatory effector molecules.
Activation of caspase-3 requires proteolytic processing, and the presence of the staining in liver slides containing apoptotic cells is positive (Fig. 3–1). CONCLUSION Apoptosis plays a major role in numerous liver diseases, including hepatitis, cholestasis, and liver cancers. It is also a major factor in damage related to drug administration and liver transplantation. While further elucidation of apoptotic mechanisms in the liver will help in enhancing our understanding of liver diseases, current knowledge may be of use in their treatment and prevention.
Liver: A Complete Book On Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Diseases by Mamun-Al-Mahtab