By Invensys Building Systems
This record serves as an creation to how a Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC) regulate approach is used to function a buildings mechanical equipmentso as to keep up the specified environmental stipulations.
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Additional info for HVAC Controls Introduction
Mixing Valve A diverting valve is defined as a valve with one input and two outputs. A common use of a diverting valve is with a cooling tower, where the valve diverts water to the top of the cooling tower or bypasses the tower to the sump. Diverting Valve 30 Invensys Building Systems BASIC CONTROL SYSTEM Transducers Transducers allow electronic controllers to use pneumatic actuators. Transducers convert one type of proportional energy into another. An electronic-to-pneumatic (E-P) transducer converts a voltage or current input into a pneumatic (psig) output.
I. control works. Note that starting at the left, the temperature matches the setpoint, and the output from the controller is 50%. Then the load changes and there is an offset from the setpoint. The output from the controller starts to compensate, first at 55%, then 60%, then 65% and so forth, until the temperature returns to setpoint. This may cause some oscillation on the part of the controller, but its output eventually stabilizes. In this example the output, at 65%, took three minutes to stabilize and achieve the 74°F (23°C) setpoint.
Systems operate to maintain the setpoint, plus or minus some acceptable limits called differential (two-position or on/off control) or throttling range (proportional control). Simply stated, setpoint is what you want, while control point is what you get. In the example below, the setpoint is 74°F (23°C), and the control point is at 72°F (22°C), and varying. Offset is the amount away from setpoint, or the difference between the Setpoint and the Control Point. In the example above, the offset is approximately 2°F(1°C).
HVAC Controls Introduction by Invensys Building Systems