By David A. Messenger
In the waning days and quick aftermath of global battle II, Nazi diplomats and spies established in Spain made up our minds to stick instead of go back to a defeated Germany. The decidedly pro-German dictatorship of basic Francisco Franco gave them safe haven and welcomed different officers and brokers from the 3rd Reich who had escaped and made their strategy to Iberia. Amid fears of a revival of the 3rd Reich, Allied intelligence and diplomatic officials built a repatriation application throughout Europe to come those participants to Germany, the place career specialists may perhaps extra examine them. but as a result of Spain's longstanding ideological alliance with Hitler, German infiltration of the Spanish economic climate and society used to be wide, and the Allies may expect minimum Spanish cooperation during this effort.
In looking Nazis in Franco's Spain, David Messenger deftly lines the improvement and execution of the Allied repatriation scheme, supplying an research of Allied, Spanish, and German expatriate responses. Messenger exhibits that by means of April 1946, British and American embassy employees in Madrid had compiled a census of the approximately 10,000 Germans then living in Spain and had drawn up 3 lists of 1,677 women and men distinctive for repatriation to occupied Germany. whereas the Spanish executive did around up and switch over a few Germans to the Allies, a lot of them have been deliberately ignored within the procedure. via mid-1947, Franco's regime had compelled simply 265 humans to go away Spain; such a lot Germans controlled to steer clear of repatriation through relocating from Spain to Argentina or by way of solidifying their ties to the Franco regime and Span-ish existence. by way of 1948, this system was once successfully over.
Drawing on files in American, British, and Spanish files, this primary book-length learn in English of the repatriation software tells the tale of this dramatic bankruptcy within the historical past of post--World battle II Europe.
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Extra info for Hunting Nazis in Franco’s Spain
As the Allies moved to consider the fate of “obnoxious” Germans and their potential threat across the neutral states of Europe, the realization that intelligence similar to that gathered during the war was still needed deﬁned the intelligence mandate through 1945 and into 1946. german intelligence activities in spain In the years 1933–39 a major transformation occurred within the German colony in Spain, masterminded by operatives of the National Socialist Party, that resulted in a situation in which, in the words of Ronald Newton in reference to the German colony in Argentina 38 Intelligence Wars: Nazi and Allied Spies in Neutral Spain in 1943–47, “with few exceptions the communal organizations— religious, educational, welfare, musical, sport, social—had declared their formal adhesion to Hitler’s New Order .
Foreign policy toward Spain. If regime change was out of the question, how could some of the ideal goals to remake the world for democracy be seen in Spain? How could the United States measure change while being pragmatic about Spain’s disorganized and divided opposition, the need for trade, and the desire to keep communism out of the region? The elimination of Nazi inﬂuence in neutral states was an ideal test of change without upheaval in Spain, Portugal, and other formerly neutral states. The British Foreign Oﬃce was very much in agreement with this sentiment, and the British Labour government that came to power in July 1945 was content with a policy of rhetorical condemnation and political nonintervention interspersed with symbolic anti-Franco actions.
Often overlooked, Safe Haven represented an early eﬀort to recognize the complex relationship between European neutrals and Nazi Germany. Bretton Woods was therefore a parallel, in some sense, to the international legal precedents that came out of the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. It altered the legal ramiﬁcations of neutrality. Bretton Woods stated, in essence, that the horrors of Nazism across the continent made it legal for the Allied powers to intervene in the economic and political aﬀairs of neutral states who had ties to Germany; thus neutrality as an in24 Denaziﬁcation, Neutrality, and European Security after World War II ternational concept was no longer a complete safeguard against the reparation and other accounting eﬀorts that inevitably follow war.
Hunting Nazis in Franco’s Spain by David A. Messenger