By S. Dithmar, F.G. Holz
The expertise of angiographic structures has been more suitable enormously simply in the earlier few years. This has allowed significantly elevated degrees of photograph solution for either fluorescein and indocyanine eco-friendly angiography.This new atlas by way of Dithmar and Holz covers the fundamental rules of the hot tools for fluorescein- and indocyanine green-angiography, in addition to the excessive solution imaging of fundus autofluorescence.The angiographic indicators of retinal and choroidal ailments are illustrated with photos taken from a sequence of clinically appropriate case examples that particularly illustrate some great benefits of better picture solution for the research of universal retinochoroidal problems. In so doing, this atlas bargains an all-encompassing survey of the various angiographic symptoms in those issues and their differential diagnoses. Clinicians in all subspecialties of ophthalmology can benefit from a greater realizing of those pathophysiological phenomena.
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Additional info for Fluorescence Angiography In Ophthalmology
Apparently the yellow vitelliform material absorbs much of the laser’s infrared light. 4 · Fundus autofluorescence – typical findings a b c d e f 4 50 Chapter 4 · Fundus Autofluorescence ⊡ Fig. 9a–d. A 27 year old patient with autosomal recessive macular dystrophy (Kjellin’s disease). The yellow flecks in the posterior pole a,b have a central zone of elevated autofluorescence and a surrounding halo of reduced autofluorescence c,d. Halos like these would be very atypical for drusen. The 4 morphological correlates for this phenomenon in Kjellin’s disease are unknown.
Alternatively, there are modified fundus cameras available. A confocal system has the advantage that, with an additional diaphragm, light reflected from the plane of focus is selectively detected. Recent improvements in the design of the cSLO now allow a resolution of up to 5μm/pixel, which is sufficient to resolve images at the level of individual RPE cells. 1 Fundamentals The cSLO, developed by many users, is an instrument that projects monochromatic light through a confocal optical system onto the ocular fundus and detects the reflected light returning from the corresponding focal plane The confocal property minimizes the stray light returning from outside the focal plane, which increases the image contrast.
Due to the absence of choriocapillaris, the coloboma appears hypofluorescent. d In the later course of the fluorescein angiogram one can see staining of the inner sclera surface, causing the coloboma to now appear hyperfluorescent. ⊡ Fig. 5a,b. A patient with high myopia, paracentral foci of chorioretinal ectasias, and peripapillary atrophy. Fluorescein angiography. a In the early phase filling defects in the region of the ectasias due to atrophy of the choriocapillaris. b In the last phase, one can see staining of the sclera as foci of hyperfluorescence.
Fluorescence Angiography In Ophthalmology by S. Dithmar, F.G. Holz