By Gregory Fremont-barnes
By giving upward push to new ideologies that during time remodeled the political constitution of a lot of the realm, the yankee and French Revolutions stand as of crucial political occasions in worldwide historical past. the yankee institution of a Republican govt, and the slow enlargement of democracy that ensued, altered conventional political and social proposal, hence shaping the later French Revolution and developing the center ethic of later American political values. The Enlightenment beliefs of the French Revolution, as later unfold by way of the armies of Napoleon, dissolved most standard eu notions of political authority. This encyclopedia bargains present, specified info at the humans, occasions, events, and ideas that outlined the revolutions in France and the USA, in addition to in different components of the area through the overdue eighteenth-century Age of Revolutions.
Besides a number of entries on a number of international locations of Europe whose histories have been suffering from the French Revolution, similar to Austria, Belgium, Germany, Poland, and Russia, the numerous entries masking the folk, occasions, teams, and ideologies of progressive and Napoleonic France comprise the next: Civil structure of the Clergy, Georges Jacques Danton, The listing, Guillotine, Josephine, Empress of France, legislation of Suspects, The Mountain, Prairial rebellion, Tennis courtroom Oath, White Terror. along with a variety of entries overlaying American colonies/states, equivalent to Maryland, New Jersey, North Carolina, and Virginia, the varied entries overlaying the figures, occasions, and ideologies of the yankee Revolution and Early Federal interval of the USA comprise the next: Abigail Adams, Boston bloodbath, Constitutional conference, William Franklin, Lexington and harmony, activities at Loyalists, Massachusetts govt Act, Edmund Randolph, Signers of the assertion of Independence. eventually, the encyclopedia deals quite a few entries overlaying very important progressive figures and hobbies that have been energetic in different elements of the area in the course of the interval 1760-1815, together with the subsequent: Simon Bolivar, Dutch Revolutions, Haitian Revolution, Hispaniola, Latin American Revolutions, Mexican Revolution, Pugachev uprising, Toussaint l'Ouverture. along with over 450 essentially written and hugely informative entries, the encyclopedia additionally comprises basic files, a chronology, an intensive introductory essay, a bibliography, a advisor to similar themes, and a chain of important maps.
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Extra resources for Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760-1815 [Two Volumes]
Adams assumed that the cabinet supported his goal of a negotiated outcome with France, when in fact many in the cabinet were influenced by Alexander Hamilton, a man Abigail Adams likened to “spare Cassius” and cautioned her husband never to trust. Adams decided to send a peace mission to France with authority to negotiate a new treaty that accorded France the same commercial privileges that had been extended to Britain by the Jay Treaty. Yet even as the mission departed, the coup of 18 Fructidor removed two directors who were sympathetic to America from the French government and replaced them with hardliners.
By January 1, 1831, Garrison had started publishing the Liberator, which advocated his famous immediatist approach. Garrison organized the New England Anti-Slavery Society, the first organization in America dedicated to immediatism. Garrison brought together a remarkable group of followers that eventually included the orator Wendell Philips, the agitator Parker Pillsbury, and such others as Henry C. Wright, Maria Weston Chapman, Rev. Samuel J. Marry, Lydia Maria Child, Stephan S. Foster, Dr. Karl Follen, Oliver Johnson, and Charles C.
Talk of assassination circulated. But Adams accepted Federalist demands that two other envoys accompany Murray’s, and he gave them tough terms for France. After confirming the three envoys, Congress adjourned, and Adams left Philadelphia to be with an ailing Abigail. He did not return for seven months. To his critics, his absence in the midst of a national crisis was tantamount to a dereliction of his presidential responsibilities. Friends warned that some of his cabinet members would take advantage of his absence to scuttle his peace initiative.
Encyclopedia of the Age of Political Revolutions and New Ideologies, 1760-1815 [Two Volumes] by Gregory Fremont-barnes