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By Robert Allen Meyers

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1F). The ratio I /I0 is called the P1: FYK/LSX Revised Pages P2: FWQ/FPW QC: FYD Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology en001d42 April 28, 2001 15:9 767 Atomic Spectrometry FIGURE 1 A simple two-level energy diagram representation for excitation and relaxation mechanisms in the atomic emission process (A), atomic absorption process (B), atomic fluorescence process (C), and ionization process (D). The resulting analytical signals from the above processes are measured by experimental arrangements depicted in E, F, G, and H, respectively.

An atom cell (a flame or a heated graphite tube) is used to decompose compounds, but the energy for excitation is drawn primarily from a light source such as a white light source (which emits all wavelengths) or a hollow cathode lamp (which emits narrow spectral lines). In AAS, the detection system looks at the light source directly (Fig. 1F) and sees an intensity of the light source (I0 ) before any atoms are present within the atom cell. When atoms are introduced into the atom cell, they absorb some of the radiational energy (solid arrow in Fig.

The overall temperature of the furnace is also recorded. In a rather closely related manner, DSC involves the addition or substraction of thermal energy in order to maintain both sample and reference materials at the same temperature. The three techniques described above are often correlated with one another in the thermal analysis of a sample, since weight changes are often accompanied by the absorption or release of thermal energy. In DTA or DSC, when an endothermic change occurs, the sample temperature lags behind the reference temperature; the opposite is the case for exothermic processes.

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Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology, 3e, Analytical Chemistry by Robert Allen Meyers

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