The Encyclopedia of Early Cinema, now in a brand new paperback variation, is a different one-volume reference paintings which explores the 1st 25 years of cinema's improvement, from the early Eighteen Nineties to the mid-1910s. those early years of the background of cinema have in recent times been the topic of resurgent curiosity and a growing to be physique of scholarship, and feature emerge as famous as a very different interval, whilst relocating photographs have been relatively not like the type of cinema that later emerged because the dominant norm.
This encyclopedia covers all elements of scholarship on early cinema, either conventional and revisionist. It includes articles at the technological and commercial advancements, the suggestions of movie construction, the actors and filmmakers of the time, and at the altering modes of illustration and narration, in addition to the social and cultural contexts in which early movies circulated, together with subject matters reminiscent of distribution, exhibition and viewers. past the united states and Europe, cognizance can be given to the broader foreign photo, together with these areas in Asia, Africa, the center East, and South and imperative the United States the place filmmaking could have been fairly undeveloped yet movie-going used to be significant.
More than 950 entries were commissioned from across the world well-known experts. Alphabetically prepared, the entries diversity in size from brief actual articles to complete essays that provide transparent and stimulating discussions of the foremost matters, humans, practices, and phenomena of early cinema. A thematic checklist of entries is an invaluable consultant throughout the booklet, and all entries comprise distinctive cross-references. The longer articles have thought of feedback for extra examining, that are complemented through a basic bibliography of specialised works on early cinema.
The Encyclopedia of Early Cinema is a useful and interesting source for college students and researchers drawn to the historical past of cinema.
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Warner brothers Waters, Percival Lee Weber, Lois White, James Henry White, Pearl Williams, Kathlyn Woods, Frank Young Deer, James Zukor, Adolph KINDS OF FILMS amateur film FICTION animal pictures animation Autorenfilme biblical films chase films comedy comic series crime films detective films facial expression films féeries or fairy plays filme cantante (sung films) film d’art historical films melodramas, domestic melodramas, sensational mythologicals phonoscènes pornography serials Shakespeare films Tonbilder trick films westerns: cowboy and Indian films white slave films women’s suffrage films NON-FICTION actualités advertising films boxing films dance films ethnographic films expedition/exploration films industrial films news event films newsreels phantom train rides polar expedition films propaganda films re-enactments religious filmmaking scientific films: Europe scientific films: USA sports films travelogues LAW AND THE CINEMA copyright law and the cinema: regulating exhibition National Board of Censorship trade marks US patent wars MULTIPLE-REEL FILMS multiple-reel films: Europe multiple-reel films: USA NATIONAL CINEMAS AFRICA Africa: Belgian Colonies Africa: British Colonies Africa: French Colonies Africa: German Colonies South Africa ASIA Australia Cambodia China India Indonesia Japan Malaya New Zealand Oceania/South Pacific Philippines, the Thailand (Siam) Vietnam EUROPE Austria-Hungary Balkans, the Belgium Denmark Finland France Germany Great Britain Greece Ireland Italy Luxemburg Netherlands, the Norway Poland Portugal Russia Scotland Spain Sweden Switzerland Wales MIDDLE EAST Egypt and other Arab countries Iran Palestine Turkey/Ottoman Empire NORTH AMERICA Canada Canada, Quebec Cuba Mexico USA black cinema, USA SOUTH AMERICA Argentina Bolivia Brazil Chile Colombia Peru Uruguay Venezuela SOCIAL CONTEXTS colonialism: Europe consumer cooperatives: Europe education imperialism: USA labor movement: Europe labor movement: USA leisure time and space: USA migration/immigration: USA modernity and early cinema monopoly capitalism: USA racial segregation: USA TECHNOLOGIES communication electricity transportation urbanization women’s movement: Europe women’s movement: USA World War I TECHNOLOGY AND MATERIAL archaeology of cinema/pre-cinema celluloid film developing, printing, and assembly chronophotography COLORING PROCESSES Chronochrome Gaumont Pathécolor intermittent movements magic lanterns and stereopticons PROJECTING MOVING IMAGES projectors Biograph 70 mm projector Cinématographe Lumière double-film-band projectors Edison Home Kinetoscope Ernemann Imperator projector Gaumont projectors glass-plate projectors Kinetoscope Kinora Nuremberg toy projectors optical intermittent projectors Pathé-Frères projectors Pathé KOK projector Phantoscope Powers Cameragraph No.
Richard Abel A access Research on early cinema is primarily conducted in moving-image archives (through public screenings and in structures designed for individual study) and specialized film festivals and occasional events (Pordenone, Bologna). Because of their fragility, original nitrate prints can be consulted only in exceptional cases. This is unfortunate because much of the visual quality of the film is lost in the preservation process through the creation of a duplicate, normally a 35 mm or 16 mm viewing print.
Many films of the early period are in public domain; however, borrowers are asked to obtain copyright clearance from the legal owners when this is required by law. Further reading Footage: The Worldwide Moving Image Sourcebook (1997) New York: Second Line Search. ) Database of Archival Holdings, Brussels: FIAF (CD-ROM). Saur. Magliozzi, Ronald S. J. and London: Scarecrow Press. PAOLO CHERCHI USAI Acres, Birt b. 1852; d. 1918 inventor/filmmaker, Great Britain/Germany A photographic technician, Acres designed a cinematographic camera by early 1895.
Encyclopedia of Early Cinema