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Extra info for Emerging Infectious Diseases - Vol. 14, No. 2, February 2008
An in vitro study compared infectious clones of the NY99 strain, which is highly virulent in American crows, with a Kenya strain (KEN-3829), which is less virulent for American crows. After 72 days at 44°C, reduction in viral RNA production by the KEN-3829 strain was 6,500-fold, compared with the NY99 strain reduction of 17-fold. This finding suggested that efficient replication at high temperatures, as occurs in American crows, could be an important virulence factor that determines the pathogenic phenotype of the NY99 strain (10).
Gov/eid • Vol. 14, No. 2, February 2008 223 RESEARCH Table 1. ; SA, South Africa; Uga, Uganda; Mad, Madagascar; NA, not applicable; USA, United States; Mex, Mexico; Aus, Australia. †Strains that are glycosylated in the envelope protein positions 154–156. ‡A descendant of B956. §Coracopsis vasa. ¶Attenuated laboratory strains. #Culex annulirostris. and SA381/00 caused fever, rash, myalgia, and arthralgia in human patients; SA93/01 caused nonfatal encephalitis in 2, and SA116/89 caused fatal hepatitis (3).
Screening of the qnrA-, qnrB-, and qnrS genes in water samples and from isolated colonies was conducted by using a multiplex PCR-based technique able to amplify the known Qnr variants, as previously described (16). E. coli Lo, K. pneumoniae B1, and E. coli S7 strains were used as qnrA-, qnrB-, and qnrS-positive controls, respectively (16,17). PCR amplicons were sequenced on both strands (see below). The chromosome-encoded quinolone-resistance determining regions (QRDRs) of gyrA and parC genes were sequenced after PCR amplification by using whole-cell DNA of qnr-positive isolates, as previously described (18).
Emerging Infectious Diseases - Vol. 14, No. 2, February 2008 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention