By Seiki Akama

ISBN-10: 3319082841

ISBN-13: 9783319082844

A quantum computing device is a working laptop or computer in line with a computational version which makes use of quantum mechanics, that is a subfield of physics to review phenomena on the micro point. there was a starting to be curiosity on quantum computing within the 1990's, and a few quantum pcs on the experimental point have been lately carried out. Quantum pcs let super-speed computation, and will remedy a few vital difficulties whose recommendations have been appeared very unlikely or intractable with conventional computers.

This publication offers a brief advent to quantum computing for readers who've no backgrounds of either conception of computation and quantum mechanics. “Elements of Quantum Computing” provides the heritage, theories, and engineering purposes of quantum computing. The ebook is appropriate to desktop scientists, physicist, and software program engineers.

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**Additional resources for Elements of Quantum Computing: History, Theories and Engineering Applications**

**Example text**

The spin does not depend on other quantum numbers. Here, we go into details of spin. Mathematically, a spin is a non-negative number s satisfying s(s + 1) = h¯ 2 = λ , if the eigenvalue of S2 is λ . 3 Matrix Mechanics 45 Particles which have half-integer spin are called the Fermion. They include electron, proton and neutron. Particles which have integer spin are called the Boson. They include photon and meson. The spin of electron is either + 12 or − 12 . It shows the direction of the electron spin.

1 Starting Point Let measurement errors of physical value p and x be ∇p and ∇x, respectively. Then, the uncertainty principle can be expressed as follows: ∇p∇x ≈ h¯ which means that two physical values cannot be simultaneously determined precisely. In other words, the uncertainty principle says that the combination of the error in position times the error in momentum must always be greater than Planck’s constant. So, you can measure the position of an electron to some accuracy, but then its momentum will be inside a very large range of values.

Thus, the measurement problem involves various measurements. The problem has been originally discussed as the problem of how wave function collapse occurs in the context of the Copenhagen interpretation. We will discuss the Copenhagen interpretation later. The problem has been also discussed as the problems of the uncertainty principle, superposition states, etc. Thus, the measurement problem is now regarded as one of the open problems in the philosophical interpretation of quantum mechanics. We believe that the solution of the problem is also helpful to the development of quantum computing.

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