By H. Schultz (Auth.)
Translated from the German, this can be a useful ebook for engineers and is the reason the pains, improvement and production techniques concerned with electron beam welding
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Extra info for Electron Beam Welding
The technical expense of this type of tandem electron beam welding (TEB welding) is considerable and hardly justifiable in normal manufacturing practice. 34 Electron beam welding Electron beam 1\ /2 II. a) 11/ Direction of welding 2 -- II 11/ 2 II c) Fig. 39 The effect which the tandem electron beam welding process (TEB) has on the dynamic processes taking place in the keyhole and molten envelope, according to [381. 1 = Electron beam 1; 2 = Electron beam 2: 8) Beam power P2 too low; b) Beam power P2 too high; c) Beam power P2 correctly adjusted to prevent the formation of root voids (spiking).
The outer contour lines surround at least 10% of the maximum power density, the next inner contours 30% and so on. As the determined geometry of the beams often deviates from the ideal concentric shape, an additional boundary line is calculated corresponding to a predefined fraction of the beam power of, for example, 90%. The area enclosed by this line is given an 'equivalent beam diameter' corresponding to a circular area of the same content. 3 Effects on power density distribution Using this aperture method and modern powerful electronic data processing it is now possible to obtain a simple picture of the power density distribution within the electron beam in a relatively short time.
For the majority of welding operations the accelerating voltage is kept constant at UBmax> which depending upon the type of high voltage generator and electron beam gun, is set at 60 or 150kV. In this way, as can be seen in Fig. 45, for the required beam power P and lowest beam current Is, the smallest focal diameter d FO is achieved for the beam. Only in certain exceptional instances therefore, for example when wide weld seams are to be produced using a larger beam focus, is it appropriate to use lower accelerating voltages.
Electron Beam Welding by H. Schultz (Auth.)