By P M Holt
Early Mamluk international relations relies on treaties among the Mamluk sultans of Egypt, Baybars (1260-77) and Qalawun (1279-90), and Christian rulers. the final advent describes the Arabic literary resources within which those treaties were transmitted. Their prestige below Islamic legislation is tested, by means of an outline of negotiation strategies, and an account of diplomatic kin with the Christian powers. 3 treaties are with the army orders, 4 with Beirut, Tripoli, the Latin state and Tyre, and 4 others with Lesser Armenia, Aragon, the Byzantine Empire and Genoa. each one part has an creation giving its old heritage. The paintings bargains Islamic historians and ecu medievalists documentary facts of a sort infrequent in pre-modern center japanese historical past, casting gentle on advertisement and social in addition to diplomatic relatives.
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Extra resources for Early Mamluk Diplomacy: Treaties of Baybars and Qalawun With Christian Rulers
Ten years, ten months, ten days and ten hours beginning on this day.  This is what is agreed to the satisfaction of both parties. Signed by the august pen of the Sultan al-Malik al-Zähir in authorization of its requirements and confirmation of what is set out above. Written on such-and-such a date. 2. THE TREATY OF AL-ZÄHIR BAYBARS WITH THE LADY ISABEL OF BEIRUT: 667/1269 Beirut, which was lost to Saladin in 583/1187, was regained for the Latin kingdom ten years later, and was given as a fief to John of Ibelin.
For the use of Frankish forms of names in Arabic, see also Dussaud, Topographie, 34. 17 Al-Manşür Muhammad Π; Ayyubid ruler of Hamäh 642-83/1244-84. 18 Springs; reading manäbi' for manàfi'. 19 Rafaniyya; amending Ruqayba in text. THE TREATY OF 665/1267 39 party shall be put on oath that he knew nothing and perceived nothing, and so vice versa. 20 It is Maşyâf,21 al-Ruşâfa, all the castles of the Preaching, its fortresses, plain, highland, habitation, waste, towns, territory, estates, roads, waters and springs; all the territory of the IsmäcIliyya in the mountains of Bahra and al-Lukkäm; everything included in the boundaries and borders of the Preaching.
Crusade and settlement, 246-9. 23 GENERAL INTRODUCTION out his pavilion, and mobilized his army for the expedition. "28 So on the outskirts of Cairo Qaläwün died on 6 Dhu5l-Qacda 689/10 October 1290. A few months later Acre fell to his son and successor, al-Ashraf Khalil, and the fate of the Latin kingdom was sealed. b. Christian powers overseas In addition to the truces concluded with their neighbours in the Crusader states and Lesser Armenia, Baybars and Qaläwün maintained diplomatic relations with a wider circle of Christian powers.
Early Mamluk Diplomacy: Treaties of Baybars and Qalawun With Christian Rulers by P M Holt