By International Atomic Energy Agency
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Additional info for Design aspects of radiation protection for nuclear power plants : a safety guide
8. 1. Shielding design To design a shield for a specific radiation source, particularly where no previous experience of individual dose or collective dose is available from a similar operating plant, it is first necessary to establish the dose rate limit, taking into account contributions from other sources and the expected frequency and duration of occupancy of the area. In addition it is necessary to check that the limiting dose for the public will not be exceeded. Furthermore, the shield thickness shall be optimized for radiation protection purposes bearing in mind that such optimization be carried out within the constraints of the prescribed dose limit.
If steam generator tube structural integrity cannot be assured, the amount of primary water which could enter the secondary side shall be estimated. After shutdown of the reactor, the radioactivity of the 16 leaking water may increase with time owing to the spiking effect caused by leaching of defective fuel penetrated by water. Depending upon the design of the steam generator, the primary water being transferred may mix with the inventory of secondary water in the steam generator. The steam produced shortly after the accident, which will leave through the broken steam line, will have a higher than normal moisture content because of the depressurization.
In general, low-level solid waste from nuclear power plants contains much material that is non-radioactive. Since in some Member States contractual disposal is expensive, sorting of the wastes at the origin in the plant, combined with subsequent radiation survey and sorting on site may be cost effective. The result can be a large reduction in volume, cost, and impact to the environment. 11. Liquid and gaseous waste treatment systems Radiation protection for site personnel from the liquid and gaseous waste treatment systems is very important because such equipment contains very high concentrations of radioactivity and so forms radiation sources of high strength.
Design aspects of radiation protection for nuclear power plants : a safety guide by International Atomic Energy Agency