By Jürgen Bereiter-Hahn (auth.), Professor Dr. Jürgen Bereiter-Hahn, Professor Dr. O. Roger Anderson, Professor Dr. Wolf-Ernst Reif (eds.)
Genetic info determines the composition of molecules comprising cytoskeletal components, membranes and receptors. The supramolecular association of those parts represents a self-assembly approach managed by means of physicochemical and mechanical interactions. This common speculation demarcates the purpose of learning mobile mechanics. Description and review of mechanical houses of cells and their organelles, in addition to of the forces exerted by way of them, is the scope of this publication on Cytomechanics. Emphasis is laid at the function of mechanical houses within the iteration of form and cytoplasmic movement, and at the uncomplicated rules and elements settling on mechanical properties.
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Extra resources for Cytomechanics: The Mechanical Basis of Cell Form and Structure
2). Different cell types interact with a supporting collagen layer at different strength (Tucker et al. 1985). A fruitful method for modeling this type of self-organizational event is the finite element theory (see Chaps. 3). Oster and Odell (1984 b) used this approach to describe dermo-epidermal interactions. 2 Influences of Mechanical Stresses on Cellular Metabolism Normal cells derived from solid tissues require adhesion to a solid substrate in order to grow. This anchorage-dependent growth is supposed to be related to the degree of spreading (Greenspan and Folkman 1977) which may be one crucial factor in density-dependent control of growth (O'Neill et al.
1954, and Table 1 in Chap. 2) may be generated by the tension of the extraneous coats outside the cell proper, as indicated by the report of a very low surface force in the order of 10- 4 N/m in fish eggs deprived of the chorion (Sakai 1961). 3 Indirect Measurements of the Surface Force and the Internal Pressure In cells without or with tender extraneous coats, such as echinoderm eggs, direct measurement of the internal pressure of the cell by the manometric method described above is practically impossible, since the pressure difference at the interface between the protoplasm and the liquid in the micropipette inserted into the cell introduces a serious error in measurement.
Hiramoto 32 Some cells are surrounded by membranes, layers, and/or coats outside the cell membrane, which in this chapter are referred to as "extraneous coats". The stiffness of the extraneous coats varies in different cells: in some cells it is smaller than those of the cell membrane and the cortex, while in other cells it is larger. For example, the cell wall in higher plant cells is extremely stiff in comparison to the cell membrane and the cortex, and withstands a tension far larger than the tensions of the cell membrane and the cortex.
Cytomechanics: The Mechanical Basis of Cell Form and Structure by Jürgen Bereiter-Hahn (auth.), Professor Dr. Jürgen Bereiter-Hahn, Professor Dr. O. Roger Anderson, Professor Dr. Wolf-Ernst Reif (eds.)