By Jeffrey M. Gordon
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Extra info for Cool thermodynamics : the engineering and physics of predictive, diagnostic and optimization methods for cooling systems
5: Thermodynamic properties of the refrigerant (water) at key points along the absorption refrigeration cycle. ) pressure (kPa) temp. (°C) specific enthalpy (kJ kg–1) specific entropy (kJ kg–1 K–1) LiBr mass fraction, X 1. 652 2. 652 3. 2438 – 4. 603 5. 603 6. 05 8 . 0 7. 0 8. 71 18 8 . 0 state point determine: (1) the ratio of solution mass flow rate at the absorber to refrigerant mass flow rate, commonly called the circulation flow rate ratio CR; (2) the chiller’s COP; and (3) the mass flow rate of saturated steam that must be supplied to the generator.
1: Thermodynamic properties for ammonia as required for the Carnot cycle s ta te p o int ( s e e F ig. 2 . 8 1. 077 –18 3 10 . 11: The T–S diagram for the Carnot cycle (subscript c, open squares) and for the real cycle (subscript r, solid triangles) of the ammonia–refrigerant machine considered here. compression; and (3) no pressure drops or related losses for the refrigerant. 11. 6 . 1 kJ kg –1. (b) The real cycle The actual irreversible cycle includes: (1) finite-size heat exchangers and hence finite-rate heat transfer losses; (2) non-isentropic expansion; (3) expansion via throttling; and (4) pressure losses incurred mainly in the single-phase flow region of the heat exchangers.
6: T–S diagram for the third possibility considered, wherein the cycle extends into the high-pressure liquid region. 4; and (2) the new additional isothermal compression branch d–d' requires an extra compressor and is difficult to realize with real equipment. 6. Its principal drawback is that point a becomes a very high pressure point (relative to the pressure at point d'), and renders the cycle impractical. 7. The four key steps are: (1) throttling in an expansion device (a–b) during which the refrigerant temperature falls below the temperature of the space to be cooled; (2) isobaric isothermal heat removal in the evaporator (b–c), with the refrigerant entering the evaporator as a low-quality saturated mixture and completely evaporates due to accepting heat from the refrigerated space; (3) isentropic compression (c–d) where saturated vapor is brought up to the condenser pressure and well above the temperature of the surrounding medium; and (4) isobaric heat rejection to the environment at the condenser (d–d'–a) of which branch d'–a is isothermal, with the refrigerant entering as superheated vapor and leaving as saturated liquid.
Cool thermodynamics : the engineering and physics of predictive, diagnostic and optimization methods for cooling systems by Jeffrey M. Gordon