By William E. Caplin
This ebook introduces a brand new thought of shape for the research of instrumental song of the classical kind that specializes in formal function--how the tune works and the place it really is going. development upon rules first complex by way of Arnold Schoenberg and later built through Erwin Ratz, the idea presents a extensive set of rules and a entire method for the research of classical shape, starting from the person principles making up a number of words of subject matters to the large-scale association of whole hobbies. The e-book encompasses a particular dialogue of normal topic forms, considers extra broad formal areas, and eventually treats the fundamental association of the full-movement shape. The theoretical options are illustrated with over 250 annotated musical examples from Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven.
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Extra info for Classical Form: Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven
The important role of harmony in defining formal functions should be evident from the preceding chapter. The intrathematic functions (such as presentation, continuation, and cadential) are especially contingent on specific types of local harmonic progression. Thus one of the earliest tasks in any formal analysis—indeed, perhaps the first task—is to determine the underlying harmony of a given passage. This chapter, a kind of brief Harmonielehre, systematically presents the fundamental harmonic progressions used by the classical composers to articulate formal functions.
In a sonata-form exposition, the main theme expresses the home key through cadential closure. Likewise, a later-occurring subordinate theme confirms the subordinate key. Standing between these two functions is the transition, a themelike unit that destabilizes the home key and (usually) modulates to the subordinate key. Tonal considerations are thus central to the functional distinctions among themes and themelike units. But tonality alone does not account for the differing phrase-structural designs manifested by these functions.
9). 5a. Note that the pre-dominant harmony above the fourth scale-degree is not the subdominant triad, as many textbooks suggest but, rather, the firstinversion supertonic triad. To be sure, the IV chord is regularly encountered (ex. 15 27 As already mentioned, either the initial tonic or the predominant may be omitted, thus yielding an incomplete cadential progression. In such cases, the initial tonic is left out more often than the pre-dominant is, for eliminating the latter results in the loss of a fundamental harmonic function.
Classical Form: Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven: A Theory of Formal Functions for the Instrumental Music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven by William E. Caplin