By Norbert Schrage, François Burgher, Jöel Blomet, Lucien Bodson, Max Gerard, Alan Hall, Patrice Josset, Laurence Mathieu, Harold Merle
More than 25,000 chemical items have the aptitude to reason ocular burns. simply because such burns may end up in lack of sight or the necessity for corneal transplantation, they need to be taken very heavily. This publication is the 1st to be committed completely to chemical ocular burns. All elements of the topic are coated, together with heritage, epidemiology, chemical brokers and reactions, histology, pathophysiology, medical symptoms, scientific and surgical remedies, and emergency care. specific consciousness is paid to the mechanisms focused on ocular burns and to the hyperlinks among the chemical reactivity of corrosive brokers and the scientific manifestations. present ideas of decontamination are absolutely defined and the most recent remedy recommendations are mentioned intimately. This e-book stands on the interface of the chemical and clinical sciences. it is going to be of significant functional price to ophthalmologists and medical professionals in emergency clinical and burns devices, and should acquaint chemists with the scientific outcomes of corrosivity.
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Extra info for Chemical Ocular Burns: New Understanding and Treatments
Once more, this justifies the necessity of beginning the wash as soon as possible. 73 Dynamic wash experimental setup The chemical burn is the expression of a chemical ability to react between two molecules, a xenobiotic one and a biochemical tissues one. An acid can only affect the eye if it finds some chemical structures of basic nature in the cornea. It’s the same for the attack of an oxidizing agent toward reducing cellular molecules. Generally speaking, in a chemical reaction, there is always a donor entity and an acceptor entity.
The living substance is constituted by six major atomic elements entering the architecture of the biochemical molecules. They are carbon, which defines the organic chemistry (that is the chemistry of what’s alive), hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur. It is necessary to add to these five other elements of mainly ionic nature included in trace elements: Na (Na+), Mg (Mg++), K (K+), Ca (Ca++), Cl (Cl−). These ions are essential to keep the balance of aqueous biological environments whether they are in intra- or extracellular environments.
This one will then automatically try to compensate this loss by attracting its other bonding doublets, and particularly the one shared with the oxygen atom from the hydroxyl group (–OH) of the acid function. This misbalance of electronic charges will weaken the O–H bond. It is then easy to understand that the hydrogen atom, less strongly connected, will release more easily as an H+ ion. Then the acidic characteristic is more outstanding. 19). 20), acidity gets stronger as acetic acid changes to trichloroacetic acid, which is a major corrosive and a very damaging acid.
Chemical Ocular Burns: New Understanding and Treatments by Norbert Schrage, François Burgher, Jöel Blomet, Lucien Bodson, Max Gerard, Alan Hall, Patrice Josset, Laurence Mathieu, Harold Merle