By Jennifer I. Lim (ed.)
Addressing an important situation affecting thousands all over the world, this resource compiles the main sensible and groundbreaking study at the etiology, review, and therapy of Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). With full-color illustrations all through, this reference explores learn developments that experience led to novel treatments that provide sight saving, much less harmful different types of therapy for exudative AMD, in addition to innovations to avoid the development of non-exudative AMD. With 3 new chapters and expansive quantity of part updates, this resource offers the newest stories on OCT imaging, experimental remedies, new functions for thermal lasers, and gene remedy for AMD. The resource additionally summarizes reviews from present medical trials to stay the most useful within the provision of take care of sufferers with this disabling disorder.
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Additional resources for Age-Related Macular Degeneration
Source: From Refs. 146, 147. capillaries and epithelial cells. If enough glomeruli are involved, renal impairment occurs. In some ways, glomerulosclerosis resembles geographic atrophy in AMD (Fig. 6). The response to injury hypothesis has been thoroughly evaluated for renal hypertension, a major cause of glomerulosclerosis (141–145,148). The hemodynamic injury hypothesis proposes that glomerular capillary hypertension causes excessive ﬂow through the glomerulus or hydraulic stretching of the capillary wall to activate injury responses in glomerular cells.
Enzymes, receptors) by cross-linking of sulfhydryl groups or other chemical modiﬁcations, damage to the cell membrane by lipid peroxidation of fatty acids in the phospholipid bilayers, depletion of ATP by loss of integrity of the inner membrane of the mitochondria, and breaks or cross-links in DNA due to chemical alterations of nucleotides (1,26). , vitamin E) and extracellular antioxidants (1,26). In the retina, oxidation induced lipid peroxidation and protein damage in RPE and photoreceptors have been proposed as major injury stimuli (27–30).
Thus, the receptors of innate immunity are identical among all individuals within a species in the same way that receptors for neurotransmitters or hormones are genetically identical within a species. 12 CSAKY AND COUSINS The classic example of the innate immune response is the immune response to acute infection. For example, in endophthalmitis, bacterial-derived toxins or host cell debris stimulate the recruitment of neutrophils and monocytes, leading to the production of inﬂammatory mediators and phagocytosis of the bacteria.
Age-Related Macular Degeneration by Jennifer I. Lim (ed.)