By American Academy of Ophthalmology, James C. Bobrow MD
Stories the anatomy, body structure, embryology and pathology of the lens. Covers the epidemiology, overview and administration of cataracts and provides an outline of lens and cataract surgical procedure, together with distinct occasions. part eleven additionally walks the reader via making a suitable differential prognosis and designing a administration plan for intraoperative and postoperative problems of cataract surgery.
Upon crowning glory of part eleven, readers may be capable to:
Identify congenital anomalies of the lens
List sorts of congenital and purchased cataracts
Describe the organization of cataracts with getting older, trauma, medicinal drugs, and systemic and ocular diseases
Describe the overview and administration of sufferers with cataract and different lens abnormalities
Read or Download 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 11: Lens and Cataract PDF
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Additional resources for 2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 11: Lens and Cataract
Sometimes a remnant of the tunica vasculosa lentis persists as a small opacity or strand, called a Mittendorf dot (discussed later), on the posterior aspect of the lens. In other eyes, remnants of the pupillary membrane are often visible as pupillary strands. Zonules of Zinn Experimental evidence suggests that the zonular fibers are secreted by the ciliary epithelium, although how these fibers insert into the lens capsule is not known. The zonular fibers begin to develop at the end of the third month of gestation.
Weill-Marchesani syndrome is usually inherited as an autosomal recessive trait. The spherical lens can block the pupil, causing secondary angle-closure glaucoma. Use of miotics aggravates this condition by increasing pupillary block and allowing additional forward lens displacement. Cycloplegics are the medical treatment of choice to break an attack of angle-closure glaucoma in patients with microspherophakia, because they decrease pupillary block by tightening the zonular fibers, decreasing the anteroposterior lens diameter, and pulling the lens posteriorly.
This mechanism depends on the breakdown of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and is regulated by the enzyme Na+,K+-ATPase. This balance is easily disrupted by the specific ATPase inhibitor ouabain. Inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase leads to loss of cation balance and elevated water content in the lens. Pump-leak theory The combination of active transport and membrane permeability is often referred to as the pump-leak system of the lens (Fig 2-3). According to the pump-leak theory, potassium and various other molecules, such as amino acids, are actively transported into the lens via the epithelium anteriorly.
2014-2015 Basic and Clinical Science Course (BCSC): Section 11: Lens and Cataract by American Academy of Ophthalmology, James C. Bobrow MD