This guide discusses a variety of platforms and the apparatus (components or assemblies) they include, and describes gains and ameliorations. this knowledge is helping method designers and operators in opting for and utilizing gear. This variation encompasses a new bankruptcy 18, Variable-Refrigerant-Flow structures, which describes those platforms, their elements, and appropriate criteria intimately, and encompasses a procedure layout instance and critical counsel on expenses, controls, and protection. This instruction manual is a reference for engineers operating in HVAC&R and for pros in allied fields. ASHRAE, based in 1894, is a world association of a few 50,000 folks. ASHRAE fulfills its challenge of advancing heating, air flow, air con, and refrigeration to serve humanity and advertise a sustainable global via study, criteria writing, publishing, and carrying on with schooling.
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Extra info for 2012 ASHRAE Handbook - Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment (SI Edition)
Designs are flexible for optimum air distribution, draft control, and adaptability to varying local requirements. ). All-air systems adapt well to winter humidification and dehumidification for high latent loads. All-air systems take advantage of load diversity. In other words, a central air-handling unit serving multiple zones needs to be sized only for the peak coincident load, not the sum of the peak loads of each individual zone. In buildings with significant fenestration loads, diversity can be significant, because the sun cannot shine on all sides of a building simultaneously.
Air-cooled equipment may also be appropriate in high-wet-bulb environments, because the cooling tower supply water temperature is a function of the wet-bulb temperature. Evaporative condensers pass outdoor air over coils sprayed with water, thus taking advantage of adiabatic saturation to lower the condensing temperature. As with cooling towers, freeze prevention and close control of water treatment are required for successful operation. The lower power consumption of the refrigeration system and much smaller footprint of the evaporative condenser are gained at the expense of the cost of water and water treatment used and increased maintenance cost.
The availability of fuel oil or coal delivery affects road access and storage for deliveries. Security around a central plant must be considered in the design and include standby electrical power generation and production of central cooling and heating for critical applications in times of outages or crisis. Energy for heating may also come from waste heat from a CHP system. Plant production efficiency is improved when waste heat can be reclaimed and transferred to a heat source. 6 2012 ASHRAE Handbook—HVAC Systems and Equipment (SI) the thermal load meets or exceeds the heat rejection of the electric generation.
2012 ASHRAE Handbook - Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Systems and Equipment (SI Edition) by ASHRAE